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A 2.4-GHz Temperature-Compensated CMOS LC-VCO for Low Frequency Drift Low-Power Direct-Modulation GFSK Transmitters
Toru TANZAWA Kenichi AGAWA Hiroyuki SHIBAYAMA Ryota TERAUCHI Katsumi HISANO Hiroki ISHIKURO Shouhei KOUSAI Hiroyuki KOBAYASHI Hideaki MAJIMA Toru TAKAYAMA Masayuki KOIZUMI Fumitoshi HATORI
IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Electronics
Publication Date: 2005/04/01
Print ISSN: 0916-8516
Type of Manuscript: Special Section PAPER (Special Section on Low-Power LSI and Low-Power IP)
GFSK, CMOS LC-VCO, Bluetooth, direct modulation, low power,
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A frequency drift of open-loop PLL is an issue for the direct-modulation applications such as Bluetooth transceiver. The drift mainly comes from a temperature variation of VCO during the transmission operation. In this paper, we propose the optimum location of the VCO, considering the temperature gradient through the whole-chip thermal analysis. Moreover, a novel temperature-compensated VCO, employing a new biasing scheme, is proposed. The combination of these two techniques enables the power reduction of the transmitter by 33% without sacrificing the performance.