Wavelength Conversion Using Quasi-Phase Matched LiNbO3 Waveguides

Masaki ASOBE  Yoshiki NISHIDA  Osamu TADANAGA  Hiroshi MIYAZAWA  Hiroyuki SUZUKI  

IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Electronics   Vol.E88-C   No.3   pp.335-341
Publication Date: 2005/03/01
Online ISSN: 
DOI: 10.1093/ietele/e88-c.3.335
Print ISSN: 0916-8516
Type of Manuscript: INVITED PAPER (Special Section on Optical Signal-Processing Devices for Photonic Networks)
wavelength conversion,  waveguide,  lithium niobate,  quasi-phase matching,  

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This paper describes recent progress in research on wavelength converters that employ quasi-phase-matched LiNbO3 (QPM-LN) waveguides. The basic structure and operating principle of these devices are presented. The conversion efficiency in difference frequency generation (DFG), second harmonic generation (SHG) and an SHG/DFG cascade scheme are explained. Device fabrication technologies such as periodic poling, and those used for annealed proton-exchanged (APE) waveguides, and direct bonded waveguides are introduced. An APE waveguide is used to demonstrate the wavelength conversion of broadband (> 1 Tbit/s) WDM signals. The low penalty conversion of high-speed (40 Gbit/s) based WDM signals is also reported. Excellent resistance to photorefractive damage in a direct bonded waveguide is presented. This high level of resistance enabled highly efficient wavelength conversion. A new design concept is introduced for a multiple QPM device based on the continuous phase modulation of a periodically poled structure. This multiple QPM device enables the variable wavelength conversion of WDM signals. High-speed wavelength switching between ITU-T grid wavelengths using a finely tuned multiple QPM device is also reported. QPM-LN based wavelength converters have several advantages, including the ability to convert high-speed signals of 1 THz or greater, no signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio degradation, no modulation format dependence, and they are capable of the simultaneous conversion of broadband WDM channels. They will therefore be key devices in future photonic networks.