Design of Quadrature Hybrids and Directional Couplers Based on the Equivalent Admittance Approach

Isao OHTA  Tadashi KAWAI  

Publication
IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Electronics   Vol.E88-C   No.1   pp.2-14
Publication Date: 2005/01/01
Online ISSN: 
DOI: 10.1093/ietele/e88-c.1.2
Print ISSN: 0916-8516
Type of Manuscript: INVITED PAPER (Special Section on Recent Trends of Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Passive Circuit Components and Technologies for Improvement of Characteristics)
Category: 
Keyword: 
microwave passive component,  directional coupler,  hybrid,  microwave integrated circuit,  equivalent admittance approach,  

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Summary: 
This paper presents a design procedure of a directional coupler consisting of a twofold symmetric four-port circuit with four identical matching networks at each port. The intrinsic power-split ratio and the equivalent admittance of the directional coupler are formularized in terms of the eigenadmittances of the original four-port without the matching networks. These formulas are useful for judgment on the realizability of a directional coupler in a given circuit structure and for design of the matching networks. Actually, the present procedure is applied to designing various quadrature hybrids and directional couplers, and its practical usefulness as well as several new circuit structures are demonstrated.