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Electric-Field Distribution Estimation in a Train Carriage due to Cellular Radios in order to Assess the Implantable Cardiac Pacemaker EMI in Semi-Echoic Environments
Takashi HIKAGE Toshio NOJIMA Soichi WATANABE Takashi SHINOZUKA
IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Communications
Publication Date: 2005/08/01
Print ISSN: 0916-8516
Type of Manuscript: Special Section PAPER (Special Section of 2004 International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility)
Category: Biological Effects
EMC, EMI, implantable cardiac pacemaker, cellular radio, FDTD, train carriage,
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The electromagnetic field (EMF) distributions created inside a train carriage by the cellular radios of the passengers are analyzed and the impact their electromagnetic interference (EMI) on the implantable cardiac pacemakers is evaluated based upon the analysis results. Both computer simulations and experiments using 800 MHz and 2 GHz transmitters in an actual train carriage confirm that excessively high EMF, high enough to affect the normal functions of the pacemaker, does not occur inside the carriage provided the safe distance of 22 cm specified for pacemaker users is kept. A simplified histogram estimation method for electric field strength is newly developed to deal with the complicated EMF distributions. It allows the EMI risk to pacemakers by cellular radio transmission to be quantitatively evaluated. Methodologies are described first. Typical results of FDTD analysis and actual measurement data are then shown. Finally, considerations and conclusions are made.