Location-Aware Power-Efficient Directional MAC Protocol in Ad Hoc Networks Using Directional Antenna

Tetsuro UEDA
Shinsuke TANAKA
Siuli ROY

IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Communications   Vol.E88-B    No.3    pp.1169-1181
Publication Date: 2005/03/01
Online ISSN: 
DOI: 10.1093/ietcom/e88-b.3.1169
Print ISSN: 0916-8516
Type of Manuscript: PAPER
Category: Wireless Communication Technologies
ad hoc networks,  MAC protocol,  directional antenna,  space division multiple access,  location tracking,  power control,  

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Use of directional antenna in the context of ad hoc wireless networks can largely reduce radio interference, thereby improving the utilization of wireless medium. Our major contribution in this paper is to devise a MAC protocol that exploits the advantages of directional antenna in ad hoc networks for improved system performance. In this paper, we have illustrated a MAC protocol for ad hoc networks using directional antenna with the objective of effective utilization of the shared wireless medium. In order to implement effective MAC protocol in this context, a node should know how to set its transmission direction to transmit a packet to its neighbors and to avoid transmission in other directions where data communications are already in progress. In this paper, we are proposing a receiver-centric approach for location tracking and MAC protocol, so that, nodes become aware of its neighborhood and also the direction of the nodes for communicating directionally. A node develops its location-awareness from these neighborhood-awareness and direction-awareness. In this context, researchers usually assume that the gain of directional antennas is equal to the gain of corresponding omni-directional antenna. However, for a given amount of input power, the range R with directional antenna will be much larger than that using omni-directional antenna. In this paper, we also propose a two level transmit power control mechanism in order to approximately equalize the transmission range R of an antenna operating at omni-directional and directional mode. This will not only improve medium utilization but also help to conserve the power of the transmitting node during directional transmission. Our proposed directional MAC protocol can be effective in both ITS (Intelligent Transportation System), which we simulate in String and Parallel Topology, and in any community network, which we simulate in Random Topology. The performance evaluation on QualNet network simulator clearly indicates the efficiency of our protocol.