Pinpoint Two-Photon Writing and Multi-Beam Interferential Patterning of Three-Dimensional Polymer Photonic Crystals

Satoshi KAWATA  Satoru SHOJI  Hong-Bo SUN  

IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Electronics   Vol.E87-C   No.3   pp.378-385
Publication Date: 2004/03/01
Online ISSN: 
Print ISSN: 0916-8516
Type of Manuscript: INVITED PAPER (Special Section on Photonic Crystals and Their Device Applications)
photonic crystal,  photonic bandgap,  laser nanofabrication,  two-photon photopolymerization,  nanophotonics,  

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Lasers have been established as a unique nanoprocessing tool due to its intrinsic three-dimensional (3D) fabrication capability and the excellent compatibility to various functional materials. Here we report two methods that have been proved particularly promising for tailoring 3D photonic crystals (PhCs): pinpoint writing via two-photon photopolymerization and multibeam interferential patterning. In the two-photon fabrication, a finely quantified pixel writing scheme and a method of pre-compensation to the shrinkage induced by polymerization enable high-reproducibility and high-fidelity prototyping; well-defined diamond-lattice PhCs prove the arbitrary 3D processing capability of the two-photon technology. In the interference patterning method, we proposed and utilized a two-step exposure approach, which not only increases the number of achievable lattice types, but also expands the freedom in tuning lattice constant.