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A Fragile Watermarking Scheme for Three-Dimensional Polygonal Models Using Triangle Strips
Sang-Kwang LEE Yo-Sung HO
IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Communications
Publication Date: 2004/09/01
Print ISSN: 0916-8516
Type of Manuscript: LETTER
Category: Multimedia Systems for Communications" Multimedia Systems for Communications
fragile watermarking, three-dimensional polygonal model, triangle strip, vertex coordinate,
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In this paper, we propose a new fragile watermarking scheme that can be used to verify three-dimensional (3-D) polygonal models by detecting unauthorized alterations. In order to generate a binary watermark sequence, we combine a binary random sequence generated by the user key with a binary logo sequence using the bit-wise exclusive OR operation. The binary watermark sequence is embedded into 3-D triangle strips by perturbing their vertex coordinates. The proposed watermarking scheme can identify specific locations that have been changed. Changes of the vertex coordinates in the watermarked 3-D model are reflected in the extracted watermark image, which indicates the attacked area. Experimental results demonstrate that we can detect various modifications of the watermarked 3-D model: translation, rotation, scaling, randomization of points, polygon simplification, geometry compression, and local deformation.