A Fragile Watermarking Scheme for Three-Dimensional Polygonal Models Using Triangle Strips

Sang-Kwang LEE
Yo-Sung HO

IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Communications   Vol.E87-B    No.9    pp.2811-2815
Publication Date: 2004/09/01
Online ISSN: 
Print ISSN: 0916-8516
Type of Manuscript: LETTER
Category: Multimedia Systems for Communications" Multimedia Systems for Communications
fragile watermarking,  three-dimensional polygonal model,  triangle strip,  vertex coordinate,  

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In this paper, we propose a new fragile watermarking scheme that can be used to verify three-dimensional (3-D) polygonal models by detecting unauthorized alterations. In order to generate a binary watermark sequence, we combine a binary random sequence generated by the user key with a binary logo sequence using the bit-wise exclusive OR operation. The binary watermark sequence is embedded into 3-D triangle strips by perturbing their vertex coordinates. The proposed watermarking scheme can identify specific locations that have been changed. Changes of the vertex coordinates in the watermarked 3-D model are reflected in the extracted watermark image, which indicates the attacked area. Experimental results demonstrate that we can detect various modifications of the watermarked 3-D model: translation, rotation, scaling, randomization of points, polygon simplification, geometry compression, and local deformation.