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Inter-Destination Synchronization Schemes for Continuous Media Multicasting: An Application-Level QoS Comparison in Hierarchical Networks
Toshiro NUNOME Shuji TASAKA
IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Communications
Publication Date: 2004/10/01
Print ISSN: 0916-8516
Type of Manuscript: PAPER
Category: Multimedia Systems for Communications" Multimedia Systems for Communications
multicast, live media, media synchronization, inter-destination synchronization, QoS,
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This paper presents an application-level QoS comparison of three inter-destination synchronization schemes: the master-slave destination scheme, the synchronization maestro scheme, and the distributed control scheme. The inter-destination synchronization adjusts the output timing among destinations in a multicast group for live audio and video streaming over the Internet/intranets. We compare the application-level QoS of these schemes by simulation with the Tiers model, which is a sophisticated network topology model and reflects hierarchical structure of the Internet. The comparison clarifies their features and finds the best scheme in the environment. The simulation result shows that the distributed control scheme provides the highest quality of inter-destination synchronization among the three schemes in heavily loaded networks, while in lightly loaded networks the other schemes can have almost the same quality as that of the distributed control scheme.