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FPGA Design of Real-Time Watermarking Processor for 2DDWT-Based Video Compression
Young-Ho SEO Dong-Wook KIM
IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences
Publication Date: 2004/06/01
Print ISSN: 0916-8508
Type of Manuscript: Special Section PAPER (Special Section on Papers Selected from 2003 International Technical Conference on Circuits/Systems, Computers and Communications (ITC-CSCC 2003))
image watermarking, DWT, FPGA, hardware implementation, co-operation with compressor,
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This paper proposed a new watermarking algorithm and implementation in hardware, by which the watermarking process and an image compression process can operate in conjunction, in parallel, and/or without degrading the performance of the compression process. The goal of the proposed watermarking scheme is to provide the bases to insist the ownership and to authenticate integrity of the watermark-embedded image by detecting the errors and their positions without the original image (blind watermarking). Our watermarking scheme is to replace the watermark with one or several bit-plane(s) of the DC subband after 2DDWT (2-Dimensional Discrete Wavelet Transform) decomposition which is the basic transformation in DWT-based image compression such as JPEG2000. If more than one bit-plane is involved, the position to embed each watermark bit is randomly selected among the bit-planes by a random number generated with an LFSR (Linear Feedback Shift Register). Experimental results showed that for all the considered attacks except the high compression by JPEG, the error ratios in the extracted watermarks by our algorithm were below 3% and the extracted watermarks were unambiguously recognizable in all the cases. The hardware (FPGA)-implemented result could operate stably in 82 MHz clock frequency. This hardware was merged to DWT-based image compression codec which runs in a real-time in 66 MHz of clock frequency. This resulted in the real-time operation for codec and watermarking together in 66 MHz of clock frequency. The watermarking scheme used 4,037 LABs (24%) of the hardware resource of APEX20KC EP20K400CF672-7 from Altera.