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Secure Detection of Watermarks
IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences
Publication Date: 2004/01/01
Print ISSN: 0916-8508
Type of Manuscript: Special Section PAPER (Special Section on Cryptography and Information Security)
watermark, online detection, patchwork, correlation-based, public key, paillier cryptosystem, zero-knowledge,
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There are two main types of digital watermark systems. In the first, users are given their own detection programs by which to verify the presence of watermark in data they have in their possession. In the second, users must request such verification from a detection center. The disadvantage of the first type is the possibility that a user might be able to analyze the detection program sufficiently to be able to obtain the secret data (secret key) used to embed the watermark. The disadvantage of the second is the possibility that a center might give dishonest results. In this paper, we propose a watermark detection scheme that can be used to overcome the disadvantages of both: it prevents users from obtaining secret key, and it prevents a center from reporting dishonest results. Our scheme is based on a previously proposed scheme which nearly achieved the same goals but, unfortunately, allowed users to receive watermark detection results for data specially created by them so as to reveal, through the results, secret information about how a center created its watermarks. To overcome this drawback, we have developed new scheme by which a center can prove its detection results to a user without revealing any other information. This scheme was developed by extending the work found in. Moreover we provide an option that prevents the center from encroaching on a user's privacy. The resulting watermark detection scheme is the first that, in addition to protecting secret keys of watermarks from user-tampering, is also able to prevent a center from reporting dishonest results. Although the proposed scheme is introduced first using the patch-work watermarking system, it is straightforward to extend it to a scheme that uses the correlation-based watermarking system, which yields a more robust watermark detection scheme.