Formal Detection of Three Automation Surprises in Human-Machine Interaction

Yoshitaka UKAWA  Toshimitsu USHIO  Masakazu ADACHI  Shigemasa TAKAI  

IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences   Vol.E87-A   No.11   pp.2878-2884
Publication Date: 2004/11/01
Online ISSN: 
Print ISSN: 0916-8508
Type of Manuscript: Special Section PAPER (Special Section on Concurrent Systems and Hybrid Systems)
Category: Concurrent Systems
human-machine interaction,  composite model,  automation surprises,  mode confusion,  refusal state,  blocking state,  

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In this paper, we propose a formal method for detection of three automation surprises in human-machine interaction; a mode confusion, a refusal state, and a blocking state. The mode confusion arises when a machine is in a different mode from that anticipated by the user, and is the most famous automation surprise. The refusal state is a situation that the machine does not respond to a command the user executes. The blocking state is a situation where an internal event occurs, leading to change of an interface the user does not know. In order to detect these phenomena, we propose a composite model in which a machine and a user model evolve concurrently. We show that the detection of these phenomena in human-machine interaction can be reduced to a reachability problem in the composite model.