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Analytical Expressions for Maximum Operating Frequencies of Emitter-Coupled Logic and Source-Coupled FET Logic Toggle Flip-Flops
IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Electronics
Publication Date: 2003/09/01
Print ISSN: 0916-8516
Type of Manuscript: PAPER
Category: Electronic Circuits
bipolar transistor, HBT, HEMT, digital circuit, propagation delay, flip-flop,
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This paper proposes an analytical expression for the maximum operating frequency of an emitter-coupled-logic master-slave toggle flip-flop (ECL MS TFF) based on an impulse response method. The analytical expression was in good agreement with not only SPICE simulations, but also experimental values. The analytical expression also indicated that state-of-the-art InP-based heterojunction bipolar transistors have potential to achieve over 100-GHz operation in ECL MS TFFs. Also, the proposed method was applied to the maximum operating frequency of a source-coupled FET logic (SCFL) MS TFF.