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A Novel Technique for Optical Generation of Millimeter-Wave Signals Using Multiple Phase-Locked Lasers
Masaharu HYODO Masayoshi WATANABE
IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Electronics
Publication Date: 2003/07/01
Print ISSN: 0916-8516
Type of Manuscript: Special Section PAPER (Special Issue on Recent Progress in Microwave and Millimeter-wave Photonics Technologies)
Category: Signal Generation and Processing Based on MWP Techniques
optical phase-locked loops, four-wave mixing, optical generation of millimeter waves, semiconductor lasers, semiconductor optical amplifiers, p-i-n photodetectors, power spectral density,
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A new technique for optical generation of high-purity millimeter-wave (mm-wave) signals--namely, by synthesizing the outputs from cascadingly phase-locked multiple semiconductor lasers--was developed. Firstly, a high-spectral-purity mm-wave signal was optically generated by heterodyning the outputs from two phase-locked external-cavity semiconductor lasers. The beat signal was detected by a p-i-n photodiode whose output was directly coupled to a coax-waveguide converter followed by a W-band harmonic mixer. By constructing an optical phase-locked loop (OPLL), a high-spectral-purity mm-wave signal with an electrical power of 2.3 µW was successfully generated at 110 GHz with an rms phase fluctuation of 57 mrad. Secondly, the frequency of the mm-wave signal was extended by use of three cascadingly phase-locked semiconductor lasers. This technique uses a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) to generate four-wave-mixing (FWM) signals as well as to amplify the input signals. When the three lasers were appropriately tuned, two pairs of FWM signals were nearly degenerated. By phase-locking the offset frequency in one of the nearly degenerated pairs, the frequency separations among the three lasers were kept at a ratio of 1:2. Thus, we successfully generated high-purity millimeter-wave optical-beat signals at frequencies at 330.566 GHz with an rms phase fluctuation of 0.38 rad. A detailed analysis of the phase fluctuations was carried out on the basis of measured power spectral densities. The possibility of extending the mm-wave frequency up to 1 THz by using four cascadingly phase-locked lasers was also discussed.