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Designs of Building Blocks for High-Speed, Low-Power Processors
IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Electronics
Publication Date: 2002/02/01
Print ISSN: 0916-8516
Type of Manuscript: Special Section PAPER (Special Issue on High-Performance and Low-Power Microprocessors)
Category: High-Performance Technologies
register file, cache SRAM, GaAs, power dissipation,
Full Text: PDF>>
A fast, low-power 16-bit adder, 32-word register file and 512-bit cache SRAM have been developed using 0.25-µm GaAs HEMT technology for future multi-GHz processors. The 16-bit adder, which uses a negative logic binary look-ahead carry structure based on NOR gates, operates at the maximum clock frequency of 1.67 GHz and consumes 134.4 mW at a supply voltage of 0.6 V. The active area is 1.6 mm2 and there are about 1,230 FETs. A new DC/DC level converter has been developed for use in high-speed, low-power storage circuits such as SRAMs and register files. The level converter can increase the DC voltage, which is supplied to an active-load circuit on request, or supply a minimal DC voltage to a load circuit in the stand-by mode. The power dissipation (P) of the 32-word register file with on-chip DC/DC level converters is 459 mW, a reduction to 25.2% of that of an equivalent conventional register file, while the operating frequency (fc) was 5.17 GHz that is 74.8% of fc for the conventional register file. P for the 512-bit cache SRAM with the new DC/DC level converters is 34.3 mW, 89.7% of the value for an equivalent conventional cache SRAM, with the read-access time of 455 psec, only 1.1% longer than that of the conventional cache SRAM.