A Method to Apply BPCS-Steganography to Palette-Based Images Using Luminance Quasi-Preserving Color Quantization

Michiharu NIIMI  Richard O. EASON  Hideki NODA  Eiji KAWAGUCHI  

Publication
IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences   Vol.E85-A   No.9   pp.2141-2148
Publication Date: 2002/09/01
Online ISSN: 
DOI: 
Print ISSN: 0916-8508
Type of Manuscript: PAPER
Category: Image
Keyword: 
steganography,  palette-based image,  BPCS-steganography,  color quantization,  

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Summary: 
In previous work we have proposed a steganographic technique for gray scale images called BPCS-Steganography. We also apply this technique to full color images by decomposing the image into its three color component images and treating each as a gray scale image. This paper proposes a method to apply BPCS-Steganography to palette-based images. In palette-based images, the image data can be decomposed into color component images similar to those of full color images. We can then embed into one or more of the color component images. However, even if only one of the color component images is used for embedding, the number of colors in the palette after embedding can be over the maximum number allowed. In order to represent the image data in palette-based format, color quantization is therefore needed. We cannot change the pixel values of the color component image that contains the embedded information, but can only change the pixel values of the other color component images. We assume that the degrading of the color component2 image with information embedded is smaller than that of the color component images that are used for color reduction. We therefore embed secret information into the G component image, because the human visual system is more sensitive to changes the luminance of a color, and G has the largest contribution to luminance of the three color components. In order to reduce the number of colors, the R and B component images are then changed in a way that minimizes the square error.