Code Efficiency Evaluation for Embedded Processors

Morgan Hirosuke MIKI  Mamoru SAKAMOTO  Shingo MIYAMOTO  Yoshinori TAKEUCHI  Toyohiko YOSHIDA  Isao SHIRAKAWA  

IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences   Vol.E85-A   No.4   pp.811-818
Publication Date: 2002/04/01
Online ISSN: 
Print ISSN: 0916-8508
Type of Manuscript: Special Section PAPER (Special Section of Selected Papers from the 14th Workshop on Circuits and Systems in Karuizawa)
code efficiency,  profiling,  processor architecture,  

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This paper evaluates the code efficiency of the ARM, Java, and x86 instruction sets by compiling the SPEC CPU95/CPU2000/JVM98 and CaffeineMark benchmarks, from the aspects of code sizes, basic block sizes, instruction distributions, and average instruction lengths. As a result, mainly because (i) the Java architecture is a stack machine, (ii) there are only four local variables which can be accessed by a 1-byte instruction, and (iii) additional instructions are provided for the network security, the code efficiency of Java turns out to be inferior to that of ARM Thumb. Moreover, through this efficiency analysis it should be stressed that there exists the high potential of constructing a more efficient code architecture by taking minute account of the customization of an instruction set as well as the number of registers.