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A Data Embedding Method Considering the Finite Word-Length for High Quality Images
Masaaki FUJIYOSHI Takashi TACHIBANA Hitoshi KIYA
IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences
Publication Date: 2002/12/01
Print ISSN: 0916-8508
Type of Manuscript: Special Section PAPER (Special Section on Spread Spectrum Techniques and Applications)
spatial domain, direct current, correlation-based, block-based, JPEG,
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A novel data embedding method for high-quality images, e.g., an image with a peak signal-to-noise ratio of better than 60 [dB] is proposed in this paper. The proposed method precisely generates a watermarked image of the desired and high quality for any images. To do this, this method considers the finite word-length of a luminance value of pixels, i.e., both quantization errors and the range limitation of luminance. The proposed method embeds a watermark sequence, modulated by the mechanism of a spread spectrum scheme, into the dc values of an image in the spatial domain. By employing spread spectrum technology as well as embedding a watermark into the dc values, this method guarantees the high image quality and, simultaneously, provides adequate JPEG tolerance.