A Watermarking Method Retrievable from MPEG Compressed Stream

Shigeyuki SAKAZAWA
Masahiro WADA

IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences   Vol.E85-A    No.11    pp.2489-2497
Publication Date: 2002/11/01
Online ISSN: 
Print ISSN: 0916-8508
Type of Manuscript: PAPER
Category: Information Security
watermark,  MPEG,  statistical retrieval,  blind marking,  

Full Text: PDF>>
Buy this Article

A digital watermarking method for moving pictures is proposed in which a watermark can be retrieved from an MPEG bitstream directly. In the proposed method, the watermark is embedded in multiple frames of an original moving picture, and it is detected statistically using multiple frames. Embedding is based on the modification of DCT coefficients that are in the chosen pixel blocks in each video frame. These pixel blocks are chosen differently per video frame in order to avoid regularity and periodicity. The features of the proposed method are that it does not need the original picture nor MPEG decoding processing. The proposed method is evaluated through various attacks including MPEG encoding and StirMark tools. It is shown that the watermark can survive MPEG encoding and frequency domain attacks. The reliability of watermark retrieval is also discussed in terms of statistical test.