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A Watermarking Method Retrievable from MPEG Compressed Stream
Shigeyuki SAKAZAWA Yasuhiro TAKISHIMA Masahiro WADA
IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences
Publication Date: 2002/11/01
Print ISSN: 0916-8508
Type of Manuscript: PAPER
Category: Information Security
watermark, MPEG, statistical retrieval, blind marking,
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A digital watermarking method for moving pictures is proposed in which a watermark can be retrieved from an MPEG bitstream directly. In the proposed method, the watermark is embedded in multiple frames of an original moving picture, and it is detected statistically using multiple frames. Embedding is based on the modification of DCT coefficients that are in the chosen pixel blocks in each video frame. These pixel blocks are chosen differently per video frame in order to avoid regularity and periodicity. The features of the proposed method are that it does not need the original picture nor MPEG decoding processing. The proposed method is evaluated through various attacks including MPEG encoding and StirMark tools. It is shown that the watermark can survive MPEG encoding and frequency domain attacks. The reliability of watermark retrieval is also discussed in terms of statistical test.