Newly Found Visual Illusions and 3-D Display

Masanori IDESAWA  Qi ZHANG  

IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Electronics   Vol.E82-C   No.10   pp.1823-1830
Publication Date: 1999/10/25
Online ISSN: 
Print ISSN: 0916-8516
Type of Manuscript: REVIEW PAPER
3-D illusion,  opaque surface,  transparent object,  solid object,  binocular viewing,  occlusion,  mime (pantomime) effect,  sustaining cues,  stereoscopic display,  

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Human visual system can perceive 3-D structure of an object by binocular disparity, gradient of illumination (shading), occlusion, textures, perspective and so forth. Among them, binocular disparity seems to be the essentially important cues for the 3-D space perception and it is used widely for displaying 3-D visual circumstances such as in VR (virtual reality) system or 3-D TV. Visual illusions seem to be one of the phenomena which are purely reflecting the mechanism of human visual system. In the recent several years, the authors found several new types of 3-D visual illusions with binocular viewing. Entire 3-D illusory object including volume perception, transparency, dynamic illusions can be perceived only from the visual stimuli of disparity given by some inducing objects arranged with suitable relations. In this report, the authors introduced these newly found visual illusions and made some considerations on the human visual mechanism of 3-D perception and on their exploitation for new effective techniques in 3-D display. They introduced especially on the visual effect in two kinds of arrangement with occlusion and sustaining relationship between the illusory object and inducing objects. In the former case, the inducing objects which provide the stimuli were named as occlusion cues and classified into two types: contour occlusion cues and bulky occlusion cues. In the later case, those inducing objects were named as sustaining cues and a 3-D fully transparent illusory object was perceived. The perception was just like imagined from the scenes of the actions and positions of the pantomimists; then this phenomena was named as "Mime (Pantomime) Effect. " According to the positions of sustaining cues, they played different actions in this perception, and they are classified into three types: front sustaining cues, side sustaining cues and back sustaining cues. In addition, dynamic fusion and separation of volumetrical illusory objects were perceived when the visual stimuli were moving continuously between two structurally different conditions. Then the hysteresis was recognized in geometrical position between the fusion and separation. The authors believe that the occlusion cues and sustaining cues introduced in this paper could be effective clues for exploiting the new techniques for 3-D display.