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A 1.9-GHz Direct Conversion Transmitter IC with Low Power On-Chip Frequency Doubler
Shoji OTAKA Ryuichi FUJIMOTO Hiroshi TANIMOTO
IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences
Publication Date: 1999/02/25
Print ISSN: 0916-8508
Type of Manuscript: Special Section PAPER (Special Section on Analog Circuit Techniques and Related Topics)
frequency doubler, quadrature modulator, variable attenuator, transmitter, PHS(Personal Handy-Phone System), 90phase-shifter, ECL-EXOR,
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A direct conversion transmitter IC including a proposed frequency doubler, a quadrature modulator, and a 3-bit variable attenuator was fabricated using BiCMOS technology with fT of 12 GHz. This architecture employing frequency doubler is intended for realizing wireless terminals that are low in cost and small in size. The architecture is effective for reducing serious interference between PA and VCO by making the VCO frequency different from that of PA. The proposed frequency doubler comprises a current-driven 90 phase-shifter and an ECL-EXOR circuit for both low power operation and wide input power range of local oscillator (LO). The proposed frequency doubler keeps high output power even when rectangular wave from LO is applied owing to use of the current-driven 90 phase-shifter instead of a voltage-driven 90 phase-shifter. An LO leakage of less than -25 dBc, an image rejection ratio in excess of 45 dBc, and a maximum attenuation of 21 dB were measured. The transmitter IC successfully operates at LO power above -15 dBm and consumes 68 mA from 2.7 V power supply voltage. An active die size is 1.5 mm3 mm.