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Media Synchronization in Heterogeneous Networks: Stored Media Case
Shuji TASAKA Yutaka ISHIBASHI
IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Communications
Publication Date: 1998/08/25
Print ISSN: 0916-8516
Type of Manuscript: Special Section PAPER (Special Issue on Multimedia Communications in Heterogeneous Network Environments)
Category: Media Synchronization and Video Coding
media synchronization, heterogeneous network, ATM network, interconnected ATM-wireless network, performance measurement,
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This paper studies a set of lip synchronization mechanisms for heterogeneous network environments. The set consists of four schemes, types 0 through 3, which are classified into the single-stream approach and the multi-stream approach. Types 0 and 1 belong to the single-stream approach, which interleaves voice and video to form a single transport stream for transmission. On the other hand, types 2 and 3, both of which are the multi-stream approach, set up separate transport streams for the individual media streams. Types 0 and 2 do not exert synchronization control at the destination, while types 1 and 3 do. We first discuss the features of each type in terms of networks intended for use, required synchronization quality of each medium, physical locations of media sources and implementation complexity. Then, a synchronization algorithm, which is referred to as the virtual-time rendering (VTR) algorithm, is specified for stored media; MPEG video and voice are considered in this paper. We implemented the four types on an ATM LAN and on an interconnected ATM-wireless LAN under the TCP protocol. The mean square error of synchronization, total pause time, throughput and total output time were measured in each of the two networks. We compare the measured performance among the four types to find out which one is the most suitable for a given condition of the underlying communication network and traffic.