A Neural-Greedy Combination Algorithm for Board-Level Routing in FPGA-Based Logic Emulation Systems

Nobuo FUNABIKI  Junji KITAMICHI  

Publication
IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences   Vol.E81-A   No.5   pp.866-872
Publication Date: 1998/05/25
Online ISSN: 
DOI: 
Print ISSN: 0916-8508
Type of Manuscript: Special Section PAPER (Special Section on Discrete Mathematics and Its Applications)
Category: 
Keyword: 
FPGA,  board-level routing,  NP-complete,  digital neural network,  greedy algorithm,  

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Summary: 
An approximation algorithm composed of a digital neural network (DNN) and a modified greedy algorithm (MGA) is presented for the board-level routing problem (BLRP) in a logic emulation system based on field-programmable gate arrays (FPGA's) in this paper. For a rapid prototyping of large scale digital systems, multiple FPGA's provide an efficient logic emulation system, where signals or nets between design partitions embedded on different FPGA's are connected through crossbars. The goal of BLRP, known to be NP-complete in general, is to find a net assignment to crossbars subject to the constraint that all the terminals of any net must be connected through a single crossbar while the number of I/O pins designated for each crossbar m is limited in an FPGA. In the proposed combination algorithm, DNN is applied for m = 1 and MGA is for m 2 in order to achieve the high solution quality. The DNN for the N-net-M-crossbar BLRP consists of N M digital neurons of binary outputs and range-limited non-negative integer inputs with integer parameters. The MGA is modified from the algorithm by Lin et al. The performance is verified through massive simulations, where our algorithm drastically improves the routing capability over the latest greedy algorithms.