High Responsivity, Low Dark Current, and Highly Reliable Operation of InGaAlAs Waveguide Photodiodes for Optical Hybrid Integration

Hitoshi NAKAMURA
Masato SHISHIKURA
Shigehisa TANAKA
Yasunobu MATSUOKA
Tsunao ONO
Takao MIYAZAKI
Shinji TSUJI

Publication
IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Electronics   Vol.E80-C    No.1    pp.41-46
Publication Date: 1997/01/25
Online ISSN: 
DOI: 
Print ISSN: 0916-8516
Type of Manuscript: Special Section PAPER (Special Issue on Devices, Packaging Technology, and Subsystems for the Optical Access Network)
Category: 
Keyword: 
optical access,  optical platform,  hybrid integration,  planar lightwave circuit,  waveguide photodiode,  photodiode,  molecular beam epitaxy,  passivation,  reliability,  

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Summary: 
We propose an InGaAlAs waveguide p-i-n photodiode (WG-PD) with a thick symmetric double-core for surface-hybrid integration onto optical platforms, which can be applied to low cost optical modules for access networks. The waveguide structure is designed to efficiently couple to flat-ended single mode fibers while maintaining low-voltage (less than 2 V) operation. Crystal growth conditions and a passivation technique are also investigated for obtaining high responsivity, low dark current and highly reliable operation. Fiber-coupled responsivity as high as 0.95 A/W, at a 1.3-µm wavelength, and vertical coupling tolerance as wide as 2.6 µm are demonstrated for a dispersion-shifted fiber (DSF) coupling at an operating voltage of 2 V. Dark current is as low as 300 pA at 25 and 12 nA at 100. A temperature accelerated aging test is performed to show the feasibility of using the WG-PD in long-term practical applications.