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Analysis of Communication Behaviors in ISDN-TV Model Conferences Using Synchronous and Asynchronous Speech Transmission
IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Information and Systems
Publication Date: 1996/06/25
Print ISSN: 0916-8532
Type of Manuscript: Special Section PAPER (Special Issue on Multimedia Computing and Communications)
ISDN-TV model conferencing, intricate speech communication mode(I-SCMode), Tf and Tm, synchronous and asynchronous, response time delay (RTD), threshold of recognizable acceptance of delay, nonlinear model,
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Intricate Speech Communication Mode (I-SC Mode) is observed in verbal interaction during ISDN-TV conferencing. It is characterized by conflicts and multiple interactions of speech. I-SC Mode might cause mental stress to participants and be obstacles for smooth communication. However, the reasons of I-SC Mode on the environment of information transmission are hitherto unknown. Furthermore, analyses on the talks inside a conference site (LT: local talk or a talk inside a local site) and between remote sites (MT: media talk or a talk between remote sites) are originally conceived on assumed differences in cognitive distance and media intimacy. This study deals with communication effects/barriers and cognitive distance/intimacy of media correlated with audio-video transmission signals and speech modes or talk types and response delay in human speech interactions by using an innovated conference model (decision-making transaction model: DT-Model) in synchronous ISDN-TV conference systems (SYN) and asynchronous ones (ASYN). The effects of intricate communication can be predicted to a certain extent and in some ways. In I-SC Mode, because a timely answer can not be received from recipients (or partner), response time delay and response rate are analyzed. These factors are thus analyzed with an innovated dynamic model, where the recognizable acceptance of delay is evaluated. The nonlinear model shows that the larger the response time delay, the lower the response rate becomes. Comparing the response rate between SYN and ASYN, the latter is notably lower than the former. This indicates that the communication efficiency is lower in ASYN. An I-SC Mode is the main mode that occurs during ASYN conferences, and this in turn causes psychological stress. Statistics show the prevalence of a high incidence of complicated plural talks and a low response rate exists as the main factors preventing smooth human-to-human communication. Furthermore, comparing the response delays in face-to-face LT (Tf) and machine-mediated MT (Tm), human communication delay is significantly extended by the effects of initial mechanical delays. Therefore, cognitive intimacy of media is clearly affected by the existence of physical distance.