The Results of the First IPTP Character Recognition Competition and Studies on Multi-Expert Recognition for Handwritten Numerals

Toshihiro MATSUI  Ikuo YAMASHITA  Toru WAKAHARA  

Publication
IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Information and Systems   Vol.E77-D   No.7   pp.801-809
Publication Date: 1994/07/25
Online ISSN: 
DOI: 
Print ISSN: 0916-8532
Type of Manuscript: Special Section PAPER (Special Issue on Document Analysis and Recognition)
Category: 
Keyword: 
digital image processing,  pattern recognition,  handwritten character recognition,  multi-expert system,  

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Summary: 
The Institute for Posts and Telecommunications Policy (IPTP) held its first character recognition competition in 1992 to ascertain the present status of ongoing research in character recognition and to find promising algorithms for handwritten numerals. In this paper, we report and analyze the results of this competition. In the competition, we adopted 3-digit handwritten postal code images gathered from live mail as recognition objects. Prior to the competition, 2,500 samples (7,500 characters) were distributed to the participants as traning data. By using about 10,000 different samples (29,883 characters), we tested 13 recognition programs submitted by five universities and eight manufacturing companies. According to the four kinds of evaluation criteria: recognition accuracy, recognition speed, robustness against degradation, and theroretical originality, we selected the best three recognition algorithms as the Prize of Highest Excellence. Interestingly enough, the best three recognition algorithms showed considerable diversity in their methodologies and had very few commonly substituted or rejected patterns. We analyzed the causes for these commonly substituted or rejected patterns and, moreover, examined the human ability to discriminate between these patterns. Next, by considering the complementary characteristics of each recognition algorithm, we studied a multi-expert recognition strategy using the best three recognition algorithms. Three kinds of combination rules: voting on the first candidate rule, minimal sum of candidate order rule, and minimal sum of dissimilarities rule were examined, and the latter two rules decreased the substitution rate to one third of that obtained by one-expert in the competition. Furthermore, we proposed a candidate appearance likelihood method which utilizes the conditional probability of each of ten digits given the candidate combination obtained by each algorithm. From the experiments, this method achieved surprisingly low values of both substitution and rejection rates. By taking account of its learning ability, the candidate appearance likelihood method is considered one of the most promising multi-expert systems.