Evaluation of Two-Dimensional Transient Enhanced Diffusion of Phosphorus during Shallow Junction Formation

Hisako SATO

IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Electronics   Vol.E77-C    No.2    pp.106-111
Publication Date: 1994/02/25
Online ISSN: 
Print ISSN: 0916-8516
Type of Manuscript: Special Section PAPER (Special Issue on 1993 VLSI Process and Device Modeling Workshop (VPAD 93))
Category: Process Simulation
transient enhanced diffusion,  two-dimension,  phosphorus,  silicon,  shallow junction,  furnace annealing,  

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Recently, high-dose implantation and low temperature annealing have become one of the key techniques in shallow junction formation. To fabricate shallow junction in quarter-micron CMOS VLSIs, it is well known being important to evaluate the transient enhanced diffusion (TED) of implanted dopants at low temperature furnace annealing, which is caused by the damages of implantation. We have newly studied the TED phenomena by a compact empirical method. This approach has merits of simplicity and better physical intuition, because we can use only minimal parameters to describe the TED phenomena. The other purpose of this work is to evaluate two-dimensional transient enhanced diffusion focusing on phosphorus implant and furnace annealing. Firstly, we defined effective diffusivity of the TED and determined extraction procedure of the model parameters. Number of the TED model parameters is minimized to two, which describe effective enhanced diffusivity and its activation energy. The parameters have been extracted from SIMS profile data obtained from samples which range 1013-31015 cm-2 and 850-950 for phosphorus implanted dose and annealing temperature, respectively. Simulation results with the extracted transient enhanced diffusion parameters show good agreements well with the SIMS data within 2% RMS-error. Critical doses for phosphorus enhanced diffusion have been determined in 950 annealing condition. No transient enhanced diffusion is observed at 950 under the implant dose of 11013 cm-2. Also the transient enhanced diffusivity is leveled off over the dose of 11014 cm-2. It is seen that the critical dose in TED phenomena might be temperature dependent to a certain extent. We have also verified that two-dimensional effect of the TED phenomena experimentally. Two-dimensional phosphorus n- layer is chosen to verify the simulation. It was concluded that the TED has isotropic nature in phosphorus n- diffusion formation.