Constriction Resistance of Two Conducting Spots

Hitoshi NISHIYAMA  Mitsunobu NAKAMURA  Isao MINOWA  

Publication
IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Electronics   Vol.E77-C   No.10   pp.1597-1605
Publication Date: 1994/10/25
Online ISSN: 
DOI: 
Print ISSN: 0916-8516
Type of Manuscript: Special Section PAPER (Special Issue on Recent Electromechanical Devices)
Category: Simulation and AI-Technology
Keyword: 
contact spots,  constriction resistance,  boundary element method,  current density,  interaction,  

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Summary: 
The electric or electronic circuits have many contact devices such as relay and switch. The contact between two nominally conducting flat surface has a lot of micro contact spots. The constriction resistance of the contact is known to determine the sum of the parallel resistance of the micro contacts and the interaction of them. The constriction resistance of two circular conducting spots was approximately formulated by Greenwood. This formulation shows that the interacted resistance of two circular spots is in inverse proportion to the distance between two conducting spots. It was known that this effect is introduced by the interaction between two conducting spots. However, the condition of interaction in the spots is not clear. Calculating the current density distribution in the spots is important to clarify the condition of interaction. The numerical analysis is very suitable to calculate the current density in the spots. In the fundamental case of the computation of the current density the boundary element method (BEM) is more efficient and accurate than that of the finite element method (FEM) because the boundary condition at the infinite is naturally satisfied and is not required a great number of the element in a wide space. In this paper the current density in the square spots is computed by the BEM. As the distance between two conducting spots becomes small, the current density in the two spots decreases. It becomes clear that the constriction resistance of conducting spots is increased by this effect. The decrease of current density by interaction is not uniformly, that at the near location to the opposite spot is larger than that at the far location in the same spot. In this paper the constriction resistance of two conducting spots is also considered. It was known that the constriction resistance of one conducting spot is not influenced by the form of spot very much. However, that of two conducting spots is not clear. The constriction resistance of two square spots is also computed by the BEM. The computed values of the constriction resistance of two square spots are compared with that of two circular spots by Greenwood's formulation and other results. As the result, it is clear that they have the considerable discrepancy. However, the trend of the variations is almost agree each other.