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Realization of Immittance Floatator Using Nullors
IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences
Publication Date: 1992/06/25
Print ISSN: 0916-8508
Type of Manuscript: Special Section PAPER (Special Section of Papers Selected from 1991 Joint Technical Conference on Circuits/Systems, Computers and Communications (JTC-CSCC '91))
Category: Analog-IC Circuit Analysis and Synthesis
active networks, floating immittances, current conveyors,
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This paper treats the synthesis of immittance floatator using nullors. Eight sets of circuit equations for realizing immittance floatators and their nullor (nullator-norator) representations are given. By replacing nullors with active elements such as biporlar junction transistors (BJTs), current conveyors (CCIIs), operational amplifiers (OAs) and operational transconductance amplifiers (OTAs), the immittance floatators can be derived. The development is important because it enables one to convert the present wealth of knowledge concerning grounded immittance simulation networks into floating immittance simulation networks. Using immittance floatators, we can obtain not only the floating form of 1-port but also that of 2-port networks. Novel circuits use solely minus-type norators. Using one-type (minus- or plus-type) norators greatly simplifies the simulation circuit. In the case of an immittance floatator using CCIIs as the active elements, the effects of nonideal CCIIs and sensitivities are given. Many circuits can be systematically derived using nullor technique.