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Intelligent Tutoring Systems--The Current State of the Art--
IEICE TRANSACTIONS (1976-1990)
Publication Date: 1990/03/25
Print ISSN: 0000-0000
Type of Manuscript: INVITED PAPER (Special Issue on Intelligent Computer Systems for Education)
Full Text: PDF(1MB)>>
Recently, computer-assisted instruction, CAI for short, attracts a considerable attention as the computer technology develops. The goal of CAI research is to realize a high performance education with the aid of a computer. The state of the art of the current CAI systems, however, is far from the goal. Thus, a certain breakthrough is badly needed to overcome this difficulty. One candidate is artificial intelligence (AI) techniques which is becoming popular these days. A CAI system utilizing AI techniques is called an ICAI system or an Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS for short). This paper is concerned with a brief overview of the current state of the art of ITS research. Section 2 deals with what an ITS is where an ITS is defined as a system which realizes an adaptive and bi-directional interaction aiming at effective knowledge communication. By adaptive, I mean the system can give instruction appropriate to the individual student through dynamic control dependent on the the learning process of the student. And by bi-directional interaction, I mean a mixed-initiative interaction in which the student can ask questions or ask the system to solve problems. Section 3 discussed the problem of student modeling methodologies proposed to date. Several ITS's developed in Japan, BOOK, GEOMEX, a general framework, CAFEKS, SBM, GTS and INTELLITUTOR are described in Sect. 4. Furthemore, as typical ITS's developed in US, SOPHIE, STEAMER, QUEST, MENO, GUIDON are also described in Sec. 5. Future works are discussed in concluding remarks.