Generation of Surface Wave in C-Band Automotive On-Glass Antenna and an Easily Realizable Suppression Method for Improving Antenna Characteristics

Osamu KAGAYA
Keisuke ARAI
Takato WATANABE
Takuji ARIMA
Toru UNO

Publication
IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Communications   Vol.E105-B    No.1    pp.51-57
Publication Date: 2022/01/01
Publicized: 2021/08/02
Online ISSN: 1745-1345
DOI: 10.1587/transcom.2021EBP3028
Type of Manuscript: PAPER
Category: Antennas and Propagation
Keyword: 
automotive antenna,  reflection coefficient,  radiation pattern,  computational cost,  

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Summary: 
In this paper, the influence of surface waves on the characteristics of on-glass antennas is clarified to enable appropriates design of C-band automotive on-glass antennas. Composite glasses are used in automotive windshields. These automotive composite glasses are composed of three layers. First, the surface wave properties of composite glass are investigated. Next, the effects of surface waves on the reflection coefficient characteristics of on-glass antennas are investigated. Finally, the antenna placement to reduce surface wave effect will be presented. Electromagnetic field analysis of a dipole antenna placed at the center of a 300mm × 300mm square flat composite glass showed that the electric field strength in the glass had ripples with the half wavelength period of the surface waves. Therefore, it was confirmed that standing waves are generated because of these surface waves. In addition, it is confirmed that ripples occur in the reflection coefficient at frequencies. Glass size is divisible by each of those guide wavelengths. Furthermore, it was clarified that the reflection coefficient fluctuates with respect to the distance between the antenna and a metal frame, which is attached to the end face in the direction perpendicular to the thickness of the glass because of the influence of standing waves caused by the surface waves; additionally, the reflection coefficient gets worse when the distance between the antenna and the metal frame is an integral multiple of one half wavelength. A similar tendency was observed in an electric field analysis using a model that was shaped like the actual windshield shape. Because radiation patterns also change as a result of the influence of surface waves and metal frames, the results imply that it is necessary to consider the actual device size and the metal frames when designing automotive on-glass antennas.