Simple Weight Calculation Methods for Millimeter Wave Band Massive Antenna Array in Direct Wave Dominant Environment

Mizuki SUGA  Yushi SHIRATO  Naoki KITA  Takeshi ONIZAWA  

Publication
IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Communications   Vol.E104-B   No.7   pp.865-872
Publication Date: 2021/07/01
Publicized: 2021/01/14
Online ISSN: 1745-1345
DOI: 10.1587/transcom.2020EBP3107
Type of Manuscript: PAPER
Category: Antennas and Propagation
Keyword: 
millimeter wave,  massive antenna array,  beamforming,  

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Summary: 
We propose two simple weight calculation methods (primary method and enhanced method), that estimate approximated phase plane from a few antenna phase and calculate weights of all antenna elements, for wireless backhaul systems that utilize millimeter wave band massive antenna arrays. Such systems are expected to be used instead of optical fiber for connecting many small cell base stations (SCBSs) to the core network, and supporting the rapid deployment of SCBSs. However, beamforming with massive antenna arrays requires many analog-digital converters (ADCs) and incurs the issue of implementation complexity. The proposed methods overcome the problem by reducing the number of ADCs. Computer simulations clarify the appropriate layout and the number of ADCs connected to antenna elements; the effectiveness of the proposed methods is confirmed by evaluations with measured channel state information (CSI) in propagation experiments on a wireless backhaul system. Experimental verifications on the case of calculating the weight of 200 elements from the phases of just 9 elements show that the array gain degradation from ideal (the case in which the phases of all elements are used estimation) with both methods is less than 0.4 dB in the direct wave dominant environment. In addition, the enhanced method holds the array gain degradation to under 0.8dB in an environment existing reflected waves. These results show that the proposed methods can attain high accuracy beamforming while reducing ADC number.