Neural Watermarking Method Including an Attack Simulator against Rotation and Compression Attacks


IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Information and Systems   Vol.E103-D   No.1   pp.33-41
Publication Date: 2020/01/01
Publicized: 2019/10/23
Online ISSN: 1745-1361
DOI: 10.1587/transinf.2019MUP0007
Type of Manuscript: Special Section PAPER (Special Section on Enriched Multimedia — Application of Multimedia Technology and Its Security —)
digital watermarking,  neural networks,  CNN,  rotation,  JPEG compression,  

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We have developed a digital watermarking method that use neural networks to learn embedding and extraction processes that are robust against rotation and JPEG compression. The proposed neural networks consist of a stego-image generator, a watermark extractor, a stego-image discriminator, and an attack simulator. The attack simulator consists of a rotation layer and an additive noise layer, which simulate the rotation attack and the JPEG compression attack, respectively. The stego-image generator can learn embedding that is robust against these attacks, and also, the watermark extractor can extract watermarks without rotation synchronization. The quality of the stego-images can be improved by using the stego-image discriminator, which is a type of adversarial network. We evaluated the robustness of the watermarks and image quality and found that, using the proposed method, high-quality stego-images could be generated and the neural networks could be trained to embed and extract watermarks that are robust against rotation and JPEG compression attacks. We also showed that the robustness and image quality can be adjusted by changing the noise strength in the noise layer.