Analysis on Hybrid SSD Configuration with Emerging Non-Volatile Memories Including Quadruple-Level Cell (QLC) NAND Flash Memory and Various Types of Storage Class Memories (SCMs)


IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Electronics   Vol.E103-C   No.4   pp.171-180
Publication Date: 2020/04/01
Online ISSN: 1745-1353
DOI: 10.1587/transele.2019CDP0006
Type of Manuscript: Special Section PAPER (Special Section on Solid-State Circuit Design — Architecture, Circuit, Device and Design Methodology)
Category: Integrated Electronics
QLC NAND flash memory,  non-volatile cache memory,  storage class memory,  hybrid SSD,  

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This paper analyzes the optimal SSD configuration including emerging non-volatile memories such as quadruple-level cell (QLC) NAND flash memory [1] and storage class memories (SCMs). First, SSD performance and SSD endurance lifetime of hybrid SSD are evaluated in four configurations: 1) single-level cell (SLC)/QLC NAND flash, 2) SCM/QLC NAND flash, 3) SCM/triple-level cell (TLC)/QLC NAND flash and 4) SCM/TLC NAND flash. Furthermore, these four configurations are compared in limited cost. In case of cold workloads or high total SSD cost assumption, SCM/TLC NAND flash hybrid configuration is recommended in both SSD performance and endurance lifetime. For hot workloads with low total SSD cost assumption, however, SLC/QLC NAND flash hybrid configuration is recommended with emphasis on SSD endurance lifetime. Under the same conditions as above, SCM/TLC/QLC NAND flash tri-hybrid is the best configuration in SSD performance considering cost. In particular, for prxy_0 (write-hot workload), SCM/TLC/QLC NAND flash tri-hybrid achieves 67% higher IOPS/cost than SCM/TLC NAND flash hybrid. Moreover, the configurations with the highest IOPS/cost in each workload and cost limit are picked up and analyzed with various types of SCMs. For all cases except for the case of prxy_1 with high total SSD cost assumption, middle-end SCM (write latency: 1us, read latency: 1us) is recommended in performance considering cost. However, for prxy_1 (read-hot workload) with high total SSD cost assumption, high-end SCM (write latency: 100ns, read latency: 100ns) achieves the best performance.