Heartbeat Interval Error Compensation Method for Low Sampling Rates Photoplethysmography Sensors

Shintaro IZUMI

IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Communications   Vol.E103-B    No.6    pp.645-652
Publication Date: 2020/06/01
Publicized: 2019/12/25
Online ISSN: 1745-1345
DOI: 10.1587/transcom.2019HMP0002
Type of Manuscript: Special Section PAPER (Special Section on Information and Communication Technology for IoT/CPS in Medicine and Healthcare)
error compensation,  heartbeat,  heart rate variability analysis,  sampling error,  photoplethysmography (PPG),  

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This study presents a method for improving the heartbeat interval accuracy of photoplethysmographic (PPG) sensors at ultra-low sampling rates. Although sampling rate reduction can extend battery life, it increases the sampling error and degrades the accuracy of the extracted heartbeat interval. To overcome these drawbacks, a sampling-error compensation method is proposed in this study. The sampling error is reduced by using linear interpolation and autocorrelation based on the waveform similarity of heartbeats in PPG. Furthermore, this study introduces two-line approximation and first derivative PPG (FDPPG) to improve the waveform similarity at ultra-low sampling rates. The proposed method was evaluated using measured PPG and reference electrocardiogram (ECG) of seven subjects. The results reveal that the mean absolute error (MAE) of 4.11ms was achieved for the heartbeat intervals at a sampling rate of 10Hz, compared with 1-kHz ECG sampling. The heartbeat interval error was also evaluated based on a heart rate variability (HRV) analysis. Furthermore, the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) of the low-frequency/high-frequency (LF/HF) components obtained from the 10-Hz PPG is shown to decrease from 38.3% to 3.3%. This error is small enough for practical HRV analysis.