A Weighted Voronoi Diagram-Based Self-Deployment Algorithm for Heterogeneous Directional Mobile Sensor Networks in Three-Dimensional Space

Li TAN  Xiaojiang TANG  Anbar HUSSAIN  Haoyu WANG  

Publication
IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Communications   Vol.E103-B   No.5   pp.545-558
Publication Date: 2020/05/01
Online ISSN: 1745-1345
DOI: 10.1587/transcom.2019EBP3111
Type of Manuscript: PAPER
Category: Network
Keyword: 
heterogeneous wireless sensor network,  directional wireless sensor network,  3D coverage,  area coverage,  self-deployment,  weighted Voronoi diagram,  energy consumption,  

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Summary: 
To solve the problem of the self-deployment of heterogeneous directional wireless sensor networks in 3D space, this paper proposes a weighted Voronoi diagram-based self-deployment algorithm (3DV-HDDA) in 3D space. To improve the network coverage ratio of the monitoring area, the 3DV-HDDA algorithm uses the weighted Voronoi diagram to move the sensor nodes and introduces virtual boundary torque to rotate the sensor nodes, so that the sensor nodes can reach the optimal position. This work also includes an improvement algorithm (3DV-HDDA-I) based on the positions of the centralized sensor nodes. The difference between the 3DV-HDDA and the 3DV-HDDA-I algorithms is that in the latter the movement of the node is determined by both the weighted Voronoi graph and virtual force. Simulations show that compared to the virtual force algorithm and the unweighted Voronoi graph-based algorithm, the 3DV-HDDA and 3DV-HDDA-I algorithms effectively improve the network coverage ratio of the monitoring area. Compared to the virtual force algorithm, the 3DV-HDDA algorithm increases the coverage from 75.93% to 91.46% while the 3DV-HDDA-I algorithm increases coverage from 76.27% to 91.31%. When compared to the unweighted Voronoi graph-based algorithm, the 3DV-HDDA algorithm improves the coverage from 80.19% to 91.46% while the 3DV-HDDA-I algorithm improves the coverage from 72.25% to 91.31%. Further, the energy consumption of the proposed algorithms after 60 iterations is smaller than the energy consumption using a virtual force algorithm. Experimental results demonstrate the accuracy and effectiveness of the 3DV-HDDA and the 3DV-HDDA-I algorithms.