Joint Rate Control and Load-Balancing Routing with QoS Guarantee in LEO Satellite Networks

Xiaoxin QI  Bing ZHANG  Zhiliang QIU  

IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Communications   Vol.E103-B    No.12    pp.1477-1489
Publication Date: 2020/12/01
Publicized: 2020/06/22
Online ISSN: 1745-1345
DOI: 10.1587/transcom.2020EBP3016
Type of Manuscript: PAPER
Category: Space Utilization Systems for Communications
rate control,  routing,  load-balancing,  QoS,  LEO,  

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Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellite networks serve as a powerful complement to the terrestrial networks because of their ability to provide global coverage. In LEO satellite networks, the network is prone to congestion due to several reasons. First, the terrestrial gateways are usually located within a limited region leading to congestion of the nodes near the gateways. Second, routing algorithms that merely adopt shortest paths fail to distribute the traffic uniformly in the network. Finally, the traffic input may exceed the network capacity. Therefore, rate control and load-balancing routing are needed to alleviate network congestion. Moreover, different kinds of traffic have different Quality of Service (QoS) requirements which need to be treated appropriately. In this paper, we investigate joint rate control and load-balancing routing in LEO satellite networks to tackle the problem of network congestion while considering the QoS requirements of different traffic. The joint rate control and routing problem is formulated with the throughput and end-to-end delay requirements of the traffic taken into consideration. Two routing schemes are considered which differ in whether or not different traffic classes can be assigned different paths. For each routing scheme, the joint rate control and routing problem is formulated. A heuristic algorithm based on simulated annealing is proposed to solve the problems. Besides, a snapshot division method is proposed to increase the connectivity of the network and reduce the number of snapshots by merging the links between satellites and gateways. The simulation results show that compared with methods that perform routing and rate control separately, the proposed algorithm improves the overall throughput of the network and provides better QoS guarantees for different traffic classes.