Reducing CPU Power Consumption with Device Utilization-Aware DVFS for Low-Latency SSDs

Satoshi IMAMURA  Eiji YOSHIDA  Kazuichi OE  

Publication
IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Information and Systems   Vol.E102-D   No.9   pp.1740-1749
Publication Date: 2019/09/01
Online ISSN: 1745-1361
DOI: 10.1587/transinf.2018EDP7337
Type of Manuscript: PAPER
Category: Computer System
Keyword: 
low-latency SSDs,  CPU power consumption,  DVFS,  device utilization,  

Full Text: PDF(1.1MB)>>
Buy this Article




Summary: 
Emerging solid state drives (SSDs) based on a next-generation memory technology have been recently released in market. In this work, we call them low-latency SSDs because the device latency of them is an order of magnitude lower than that of conventional NAND flash SSDs. Although low-latency SSDs can drastically reduce an I/O latency perceived by an application, the overhead of OS processing included in the I/O latency has become noticeable because of the very low device latency. Since the OS processing is executed on a CPU core, its operating frequency should be maximized for reducing the OS overhead. However, a higher core frequency causes the higher CPU power consumption during I/O accesses to low-latency SSDs. Therefore, we propose the device utilization-aware DVFS (DU-DVFS) technique that periodically monitors the utilization of a target block device and applies dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS) to CPU cores executing I/O-intensive processes only when the block device is fully utilized. In this case, DU-DVFS can reduce the CPU power consumption without hurting performance because the delay of OS processing incurred by decreasing the core frequency can be hidden. Our evaluation with 28 I/O-intensive workloads on a real server containing an Intel® Optane™ SSD demonstrates that DU-DVFS reduces the CPU power consumption by 41.4% on average (up to 53.8%) with a negligible performance degradation, compared to a standard DVFS governor on Linux. Moreover, the evaluation with multiprogrammed workloads composed of I/O-intensive and non-I/O-intensive programs shows that DU-DVFS is also effective for them because it can apply DVFS only to CPU cores executing I/O-intensive processes.