Decentralized Local Scaling Factor Control for Backoff-Based Opportunistic Routing

Yoshiaki TANAKA

IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Information and Systems   Vol.E102-D    No.12    pp.2317-2328
Publication Date: 2019/12/01
Publicized: 2019/07/17
Online ISSN: 1745-1361
DOI: 10.1587/transinf.2019PAP0004
Type of Manuscript: Special Section PAPER (Special Section on Parallel and Distributed Computing and Networking)
Category: Information Network
ad hoc network,  wireless sensor network,  opportunistic routing,  backoff time,  scaling factor control,  binary feedback,  duplicate packet forwarding,  

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In wireless multi-hop networks such as ad hoc networks and sensor networks, backoff-based opportunistic routing protocols, which make a forwarding decision based on backoff time, have been proposed. In the protocols, each potential forwarder calculates the backoff time based on the product of a weight and global scaling factor. The weight prioritizes potential forwarders and is calculated based on hop counts to the destination of a sender and receiver. The global scaling factor is a predetermined value to map the weight to the actual backoff time. However, there are three common issues derived from the global scaling factor. First, it is necessary to share the predetermined global scaling factor with a centralized manner among all terminals properly for the backoff time calculation. Second, it is almost impossible to change the global scaling factor during the networks are being used. Third, it is difficult to set the global scaling factor to an appropriate value since the value differs among each local surrounding of forwarders. To address the aforementioned issues, this paper proposes a novel decentralized local scaling factor control without relying on a predetermined global scaling factor. The proposed method consists of the following three mechanisms: (1) sender-centric local scaling factor setting mechanism in a decentralized manner instead of the global scaling factor, (2) adaptive scaling factor control mechanism which adapts the local scaling factor to each local surrounding of forwarders, and (3) mitigation mechanism for excessive local scaling factor increases for the local scaling factor convergence. Finally, this paper evaluates the backoff-based opportunistic routing protocol with and without the proposed method using computer simulations.