Fast Datapath Processing Based on Hop-by-Hop Packet Aggregation for Service Function Chaining

Yuki TAGUCHI  Ryota KAWASHIMA  Hiroki NAKAYAMA  Tsunemasa HAYASHI  Hiroshi MATSUO  

Publication
IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Information and Systems   Vol.E102-D   No.11   pp.2184-2194
Publication Date: 2019/11/01
Online ISSN: 1745-1361
DOI: 10.1587/transinf.2018EDP7444
Type of Manuscript: PAPER
Category: Information Network
Keyword: 
Packet Aggregation,  Network Functions Virtualization,  Service Function Chaining,  vhost-user,  DPDK,  

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Summary: 
Many studies have revealed that the performance of software-based Virtual Network Functions (VNFs) is insufficient for mission-critical networks. Scaling-out approaches, such as auto-scaling of VNFs, could handle a huge amount of traffic; however, the exponential traffic growth confronts us the limitations of both expandability of physical resources and complexity of their management. In this paper, we propose a fast datapath processing method called Packet Aggregation Flow (PA-Flow) that is based on hop-by-hop packet aggregation for more efficient Service Function Chaining (SFC). PA-Flow extends a notion of existing intra-node packet aggregation toward network-wide packet aggregation, and we introduce following three novel features. First, packet I/O overheads at intermediate network devices including NFV-nodes are mitigated by reduction of packet amount. Second, aggregated packets are further aggregated as going through the service chain in a hop-by-hop manner. Finally, next-hop aware packet aggregation is realized using OpenFlow-based flow tables. PA-Flow is designed to be available with various VNF forms (e.g. VM/container/baremetal-based) and virtual I/O technologies (e.g. vhost-user/SR-IOV), and its implementation does not bring noticeable delay for aggregation. We conducted two evaluations: (i) a baseline evaluation for understanding fundamental performance characteristics of PA-Flow (ii) a simulation-based SFC evaluation for proving PA-Flow's effect in a realistic environment. The results showed that throughput of short packet forwarding was improved by 4 times. Moreover, the total number of packets was reduced by 93% in a large-scale SFC.