Reliability Analysis of Scaled NAND Flash Memory Based SSDs with Real Workload Characteristics by Using Real Usage-Based Precise Reliability Test

Yusuke YAMAGA  Chihiro MATSUI  Yukiya SAKAKI  Ken TAKEUCHI  

IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Electronics   Vol.E101-C   No.4   pp.243-252
Publication Date: 2018/04/01
Online ISSN: 1745-1353
DOI: 10.1587/transele.E101.C.243
Type of Manuscript: Special Section PAPER (Special Section on Solid-State Circuit Design — Architecture, Circuit, Device and Design Methodology)
solid-state drive,  reliability,  NAND flash memory,  

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In order to reduce the memory cell errors in real-usage of NAND flash-based SSD, real usage-based precise reliability test for NAND flash of SSDs has been proposed. Reliability of the NAND flash memories of the SSDs is seriously degraded as the scaling of memory cells. However, conventional simple reliability tests of read-disturb and data-retention cannot give the same result as the real-life VTH shift and memory cell errors. To solve this problem, the proposed reliability test precisely reproduces the real memory cell failures by emulating the complicated read, write, and data-retention with SSD emulator. In this paper, the real-life VTH shift and memory cell errors between two generations of NAND flash memory with different characterized real workloads are provided. Using the proposed test method, 1.6-times BER difference is observed when write-cold and read-hot workload (hm_1) and write-hot and read-hot workload (prxy_1) are compared in 1Ynm MLC NAND flash. In addition, by NAND flash memory scaling from 1Xnm to 1Ynm generations, the discrepancy of error numbers between the conventional reliability test result and actual reliability measured by proposed reliability test is increased by 6.3-times. Finally, guidelines for read reference voltage shifts and strength of ECCs are given to achieve high memory cell reliability for various workloads.