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Cross-Layer Design for Exposed Node Reduction in Ad Hoc WLANs
Moo Wan KIM
IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Communications
Publication Date: 2018/07/01
Online ISSN: 1745-1345
Type of Manuscript: Special Section PAPER (Special Section on Communication Quality in Wireless Networks)
RTS/CTS, cross-layer, exposed node, AODV, NS-2,
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Interference in ad hoc WLANs is a common occurrence as there is no centralized access point controlling device access to the wireless channel. IEEE 802.11 WLANs use carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA) which initiates the Request to Send/Clear to Send (RTS/CTS) handshaking mechanism to solve the hidden node problem. While it solves the hidden node problem, RTS/CTS triggers the exposed node problem. In this paper, we present an evaluation of a method for reducing exposed nodes in 802.11 ad hoc WLANs. Using asymmetric transmission ranges for RTS and CTS frames, a cross-layer design is implemented between Layer 2 and 3 of the OSI model. Information obtained by the AODV routing protocol is utilized in adjusting the RTS transmission range at the MAC Layer. The proposed method is evaluated with the NS-2 simulator and we observe significant throughput improvement, and confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method. Especially when the mobile nodes are randomly distributed, the throughput gain of the Asymmetric RTS/CTS method is up to 30% over the Standard RTS/CTS method.