Receiver Performance Evaluation and Fading Duration Analysis for Concurrent Transmission

Chun-Hao LIAO  Makoto SUZUKI  Hiroyuki MORIKAWA  

IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Communications   Vol.E101-B   No.2   pp.582-591
Publication Date: 2018/02/01
Publicized: 2017/08/07
Online ISSN: 1745-1345
DOI: 10.1587/transcom.2017EBP3169
Type of Manuscript: PAPER
Category: Wireless Communication Technologies
concurrent transmission,  beating effect,  DSSS,  IEEE 802.15.4,  fading duration,  multi-hop network,  wireless sensor network,  flooding,  

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Concurrent transmission (CT) is a revolutionary multi-hop protocol that significantly improves the MAC- and network-layer efficiency by allowing synchronized packet collisions. Although its superiority has been empirically verified, there is still a lack of studies on how the receiver survives such packet collisions, particularly in the presence of the carrier frequency offsets (CFO) between the transmitters. This work rectifies this omission by providing a comprehensive evaluation of the physical-layer receiver performance under CT, and a theoretical analysis on the fading duration of the beating effect resulting from the CFO. The main findings from our evaluations are the following points. (1) Beating significantly affects the receiver performance, and an error correcting mechanism is needed to combat the beating. (2) In IEEE 802.15.4 systems, the direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) plays such a role in combatting the beating. (3) However, due to the limited length of DSSS, the receiver still suffers from the beating if the fading duration is too long. (4) On the other hand, the basic M-ary FSK mode of IEEE 802.15.4g is vulnerable to CT due to the lack of error correcting mechanism. In view of the importance of the fading duration, we further theoretically derive the closed form of the average fading duration (AFD) of the beating under CT in terms of the transmitter number and the standard deviation of the CFO. Moreover, we prove that the receiver performance can be improved by having higher CFO deviations between the transmitters due to the shorter AFD. Finally, we estimate the AFD in the real system by actually measuring the CFO of a large number of sensor nodes.