The Development of a High Accuracy Algorithm Based on Small Sample Size for Fingerprint Location in Indoor Parking Lot

Weibo WANG  Jinghuan SUN  Ruiying DONG  Yongkang ZHENG  Qing HUA  

IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Communications   Vol.E101-B   No.12   pp.2479-2486
Publication Date: 2018/12/01
Publicized: 2018/06/13
Online ISSN: 1745-1345
DOI: 10.1587/transcom.2018EBP3004
Type of Manuscript: PAPER
Category: Wireless Communication Technologies
fingerprint,  indoor parking,  SIR particle filter,  WiFi,  WKNN,  

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Indoor fingerprint location based on WiFi in large-scale indoor parking lots is more and more widely employed for vehicle lookup. However, the challenge is to ensure the location functionality because of the particularity and complexities of the indoor parking lot environment. To reduce the need to deploy of reference points (RPs) and the offline sampling workload, a partition-fitting fingerprint algorithm (P-FP) is proposed. To improve the location accuracy of the target, the PS-FP algorithm, a sampling importance resampling (SIR) particle filter with threshold based on P-FP, is further proposed. Firstly, the entire indoor parking lot is partitioned and the environmental coefficients of each partitioned section are gained by using the polynomial fitting model. To improve the quality of the offline fingerprint database, an error characteristic matrix is established using the difference between the fitting values and the actual measured values. Thus, the virtual RPs are deployed and C-means clustering is utilized to reduce the amount of online computation. To decrease the fluctuation of location coordinates, the SIR particle filter with a threshold setting is adopted to optimize the location coordinates. Finally, the optimal threshold value is obtained by comparing the mean location error. Test results demonstrated that PS-FP could achieve high location accuracy with few RPs and the mean location error is only about 0.7m. The cumulative distribution function (CDF) show that, using PS-FP, 98% of location errors are within 2m. Compared with the weighted K-nearest neighbors (WKNN) algorithm, the location accuracy by PS-FP exhibit an 84% improvement.