25-Gbps 3-mW/Gbps/ch VCSEL Driver Circuit in 65-nm CMOS for Multichannel Optical Transmitter


IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences   Vol.E101-A    No.2    pp.402-409
Publication Date: 2018/02/01
Online ISSN: 1745-1337
DOI: 10.1587/transfun.E101.A.402
Type of Manuscript: Special Section PAPER (Special Section on Analog Circuit Techniques and Related Topics)
optical transmitter,  VCSEL driver,  optical interconnects,  asymmetric pre-emphasis,  

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This paper describes the design and experiment results of a 25Gbps vertical-cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) driver circuit for a multi channel optical transmitter. To compensate for the non-linearity of the VCSEL and achieve high speed data rate communication, an asymmetric pre-emphasis technique is proposed for the VCSEL driver. An asymmetric pre-emphasis signal can be created by adjusting the duty ratio of the emphasis signal. The VCSEL driver adopts a double cascode connection that can apply a drive current from a high voltage DC bias and feed-forward compensation that can enhance the band-width for common-cathode VCSEL. For the design of the optical module structure, a two-tier low temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC) package is adopted to minimize the wire bonding between the signal pad on the LTCC and the anode pad on the VCSEL. This structure and circuit reduces the simulated deterministic jitter from 12.7 to 4.1ps. A test chip was fabricated with the 65-nm standard CMOS process and demonstrated to work as an optical transmitter. An experimental evaluation showed that this VCSEL driver with asymmetric pre-emphasis reduced the total deterministic jitter up to 8.6ps and improved the vertical eye opening ratio by 3% compared with symmetric pre-emphasis at 25Gbps with a PRBS=29-1 test signal. The power consumption of the VCSEL driver was 3.0mW/Gbps/ch at 25Gbps. An optical transmitter including the VCSEL driver achieved 25-Gbps, 4-ch fully optical links.