Commutation Phenomena and Brush Wear of DC Motor at High Speed Rotation

Masayuki ISATO  Koichiro SAWA  Takahiro UENO  

IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Electronics   Vol.E100-C   No.9   pp.716-722
Publication Date: 2017/09/01
Online ISSN: 1745-1353
DOI: 10.1587/transele.E100.C.716
Type of Manuscript: Special Section PAPER (Special Section on Recent Development of Electro-Mechanical Devices)
arc,  carbon,  erosion,  commutation,  DC motor,  

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Many DC commutator motors are widely used in automobiles. In recent years, as compact and high output DC motors have been developed due to advanced technology, the faster the rotational speed is required and the commutation arc causes a high rate of wear/erosion of brush and commutator. Therefore, it is important how the motor speed influences commutation phenomena such as arc duration, residual current and erosion and wear of commutator and brush in order to achieve high reliability and extensive lifespan. In this paper waveforms of commutation voltage and current are measured at the rotation speed of 1000 to 5000min-1and the relation between rotation speed and arc duration / residual current is obtained. In addition long term tests are carried out at the rotation speed of 1000 to 5000min-1 the change of arc duration and effective commutation period is examined during the test of 20hours. Further, brush wear is evaluated by the difference of brush length between before and after test. Consequently, it can be made clear that as the speed increases, the effective commutation period decreases and the arc duration is almost same at the speed up to 3000min-1 and is around 42µsec.