One-Body 2-D Beam-Switching Butler Matrix with Waveguide Short-Slot 2-Plane Couplers

Dong-Hun KIM  Jiro HIROKAWA  Makoto ANDO  

IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Electronics   Vol.E100-C   No.10   pp.884-892
Publication Date: 2017/10/01
Online ISSN: 1745-1353
DOI: 10.1587/transele.E100.C.884
Type of Manuscript: Special Section PAPER (Special Section on Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Technology)
Butler matrix,  waveguide short-slot coupler,  beam-switching,  

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A 42×42-way one-body 2-D beam-switching Butler matrix with waveguide short-slot 2-plane couplers is designed and fabricated in the 22GHz band. The one-body configuration using the commutativity and the overlapping of units allows reducing the size and loss in comparison with a cascade of matrices beam-switching for the horizontal and the vertical planes. It is achieved by replacing 2×2-way 1-plane couplers in the conventional block configuration for a Butler matrix with 22×22-way 2-plane couplers. The measured bandwidth is approximately 2% restricted by the frequency characteristics of the 2-plane couplers. In the radiation from the aperture array antenna of the 42 output ports, the 3.9dB-down coverage of 3-D solid angle by the sixteen beams is around 1.72 steradian which is same as 27.4% of hemisphere at the design frequency for the aperture spacing of 0.73×0.73 wavelength.