Design of an Application Specific Instruction Set Processor for Real-Time Object Detection Using AdaBoost Algorithm

Shanlin XIAO  Tsuyoshi ISSHIKI  Dongju LI  Hiroaki KUNIEDA  

IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences   Vol.E100-A    No.7    pp.1384-1395
Publication Date: 2017/07/01
Online ISSN: 1745-1337
DOI: 10.1587/transfun.E100.A.1384
Type of Manuscript: Special Section PAPER (Special Section on Design Methodologies for System on a Chip)
ASIP,  embedded processor,  computer vision,  object detection,  AdaBoost,  

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Object detection is at the heart of nearly all the computer vision systems. Standard off-the-shelf embedded processors are hard to meet the trade-offs among performance, power consumption and flexibility required by object detection applications. Therefore, this paper presents an Application Specific Instruction set Processor (ASIP) for object detection using AdaBoost-based learning algorithm with Haar-like features as weak classifiers. Algorithm optimizations are employed to reduce memory bandwidth requirements without losing reliability. In the proposed ASIP, Single Instruction Multiple Data (SIMD) architecture is adopted for fully exploiting data-level parallelism inherent to the target algorithm. With adding pipeline stages, application-specific hardware components and custom instructions, the AdaBoost algorithm is accelerated by a factor of 13.7x compared to the optimized pure software implementation. Compared with ARM946 and TMS320C64+, our ASIP shows 32x and 7x better throughput, 10x and 224x better area efficiency, 6.8x and 18.8x better power efficiency, respectively. Furthermore, compared to hard-wired designs, evaluation results show an advantage of the proposed architecture in terms of chip area efficiency while maintain a reliable performance and achieve real-time object detection at 32fps on VGA video.