Multi-View 3D Ball Tracking with Abrupt Motion Adaptive System Model, Anti-Occlusion Observation and Spatial Density Based Recovery in Sports Analysis

Xina CHENG  Norikazu IKOMA  Masaaki HONDA  Takeshi IKENAGA  

IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences   Vol.E100-A    No.5    pp.1215-1225
Publication Date: 2017/05/01
Online ISSN: 1745-1337
DOI: 10.1587/transfun.E100.A.1215
Type of Manuscript: PAPER
Category: Vision
sports analysis,  multi-view 3D ball tracking,  abrupt motion,  occlusion,  tracking recovery,  

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Significant challenges in ball tracking of sports analysis by computer vision technology are: 1) accuracy of estimated 3D ball trajectory under difficult conditions; 2) external forces added by players lead to irregular motions of the ball; 3) unpredictable situations in the real game, i.e. the ball occluded by players and other objects, complex background and changing lighting condition. With the goal of multi-view 3D ball tracking, this paper proposes an abrupt motion adaptive system model, an anti-occlusion observation model, and a spatial density-based automatic recovery based on particle filter. The system model combines two different system noises that cover the motion of the ball both in general situation and situation subject to abrupt motion caused by external force. Combination ratio of these two noises and number of particles are adaptive to the estimated motion by weight distribution of particles. The anti-occlusion observation model evaluates image feature of each camera and eliminates influence of the camera with less confidence. The spatial density, which is calculated based on 3D ball candidates filtered out by spatial homographic relationship between cameras, is proposed for generating new set of particles to recover the tracking when tracking failure is detected. Experimental results based on HDTV video sequences (2014 Inter High School Men's Volleyball Games, Japan), which were captured by four cameras located at each corner of the court, show that the success rate achieved by the proposals of 3D ball tracking is 99.42%.