A Bit-Write-Reducing and Error-Correcting Code Generation Method by Clustering ECC Codewords for Non-Volatile Memories

Tatsuro KOJO  Masashi TAWADA  Masao YANAGISAWA  Nozomu TOGAWA  

IEICE TRANSACTIONS on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences   Vol.E99-A   No.12   pp.2398-2411
Publication Date: 2016/12/01
Online ISSN: 1745-1337
DOI: 10.1587/transfun.E99.A.2398
Type of Manuscript: Special Section PAPER (Special Section on VLSI Design and CAD Algorithms)
non-volatile memory,  bit-write-reducing,  error-correcting codes,  clustering conditions,  S-bit flip conditions,  S-bound graph,  cluster graph,  REC code,  

Full Text: PDF(1.6MB)>>
Buy this Article

Non-volatile memories are paid attention to as a promising alternative to memory design. Data stored in them still may be destructed due to crosstalk and radiation. We can restore the data by using error-correcting codes which require extra bits to correct bit errors. Further, non-volatile memories consume ten to hundred times more energy than normal memories in bit-writing. When we configure them using error-correcting codes, it is quite necessary to reduce writing bits. In this paper, we propose a method to generate a bit-write-reducing code with error-correcting ability. We first pick up an error-correcting code which can correct t-bit errors. We cluster its codeswords and generate a cluster graph satisfying the S-bit flip conditions. We assign a data to be written to each cluster. In other words, we generate one-to-many mapping from each data to the codewords in the cluster. We prove that, if the cluster graph is a complete graph, every data in a memory cell can be re-written into another data by flipping at most S bits keeping error-correcting ability to t bits. We further propose an efficient method to cluster error-correcting codewords. Experimental results show that the bit-write-reducing and error-correcting codes generated by our proposed method efficiently reduce energy consumption. This paper proposes the world-first theoretically near-optimal bit-write-reducing code with error-correcting ability based on the efficient coding theories.